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DAV-03    ZNA-64


Haven’t we all sometimes wished we could have had a bird’s eye view of the titanic confrontation of David and Goliath? That scene in biblical history stands among the greatest moments of God’s plan.

Let’s go back to the crisp, cool air of a Middle Eastern morning three thousand years ago to see David. Two callused feet slipped quietly out from under the warmth of a wool fleece and deftly into the sandals left carefully beside the low wooden cot. In the twilight of early morning’s pre-dawn darkness the red headed, teenaged-boy crept carefully out of the stone house on the outskirts of Bethlehem. With the confidence of integrity and the joy of purity, young David was on his way to a moment never to fade from the pages of history.

Walking excitedly the rocky paths up and down the hills of Judah, the young shepherd boy was headed to the Valley of Elah a mere 8 miles off. Arriving before breakfast young David eagerly surveyed the eastern rim of the valley. Campfires and tents dotted the hillside as he looked at the army of God’s people Israel. With a heart filled with gratitude and wonder David strode up to the first tent and asked if anyone knew where his brothers from Bethlehem were camping. The special provisions his dad had sent them were only a part of his purpose in coming. David longed to see the people who stood for the God of Israel. But even more, David so loved the God of Israel; he wanted to see Him at work. David sang of His God on his long vigils around the hills of Bethlehem caring for his father’s sheep. David came as God’s man for this very climactic moment in history!

Suddenly a loud voice brimming with evil echoed up the valley hillsides. In the distance a pillar of armor encasing God’s enemy Goliath sprayed the venom of the ancient serpent from Eden across the faithless and frightened people of God.

Standing just above the height of a basketball rim, he was a full three feet taller than Michael Jordan. Goliath easily weighed over 400 pounds and was dressed in layers of shining golden armor of bronze, that weighed in at another 150 plus pounds.

Shocked and angered David heard for the first time this irreverent pagan reviling the God of Heaven. Instantly he wanted to stand for the honor of God at all costs. As we know so well, he did. Unafraid and with no concern for self he embodies what God can do with all who think only of the Lord and not of themselves.

The events of that day are indelibly sketched on our hearts. The shepherd lad, a handful of stones, a homemade weapon plus God made an unbeatable army of one. David defeated the giant and became and instant and enduring hero of all the ages. Why? Lets go back to his youth and find what he lived for in those early days that made him great. Turn to Psalm 132 and see David thirsting for God when he was young!

Please stand as we read Psalm 132 and have a time of prayer and let’s look at the key to his life. We’ll unearth it as we read.

A Song of Ascents. LORD, remember David And all his afflictions; 2 How he swore to the LORD, And vowed to the Mighty One of Jacob: And this is the passion of his heart: 3 “Surely I will not go into the chamber of my house, Or go up to the comfort of my bed; 4 I will not give sleep to my eyes Or slumber to my eyelids, 5 Until I find a place for the LORD, -he said I’m going to make time for God- A dwelling place for the Mighty One of Jacob.”

6 Behold, we heard of it in Ephrathah; this talks about his shepherd’s fields outside of Bethlehem- We found it in the fields of *the woods. That was when he was with his father’s flock- 7 Let us go into His tabernacle; Let us worship at His footstool. 8 Arise, O LORD, to Your resting place, You and the ark of Your strength. 9 Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness, -he pondered the purity that God wanted- And let Your saints shout for joy. He’s talking about the confidence that holiness brings.

10 For Your servant David’s sake, Do not turn away the face of Your Anointed.

11 The LORD has sworn in truth to David; He will not turn from it: “I will set upon your throne the fruit of your body. 12 If your sons will keep My covenant And My testimony which I shall teach them, Their sons also shall sit upon your throne forevermore.”

13 For the LORD has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His dwelling place: 14 “This is My resting place forever; Here I will dwell, for I have desired it. 15 I will abundantly bless her provision; I will satisfy her poor with bread. 16 I will also clothe her priests with salvation, And her saints shall shout aloud for joy. 17 There I will make the horn of David grow; I will prepare a lamp for My Anointed. 18 His enemies I will clothe with shame, But upon Himself His crown shall flourish.” (NKJV)

Let’s bow together. Father I thank You for the insight David gives us at this great moment in his life. In these verses You promise him a heritage, a lineage on the throne of Israel. You’ve promised him great blessing and as You promised that to him he looks back to when he was a young boy and when he made some choices that he would thirst after You as a young man and that he would learn in that time alone— making room for You in his life—to be willing to stand alone anywhere, anytime against any enemy. O Lord where ever we are in our pilgrimages this morning, we want to learn from this man that You declared was after Your very own heart. And we want to learn how to thirst for You with the passion of our youth and we want to learn how to stand because we have thirsted for You alone no matter what comes. Father if there’s some with us this morning that are struggling even with the hope of salvation I pray that they would look where there’s life for a look at the Savior and they would see that You, Lord Jesus offer eternal life. And for all of us who know You, may we make sure that we have given ourselves wholly to the pursuit of You. And we’ll thank You, our Lord and our God. In Jesus precious name we pray, AMEN.

Turn back to 1 Samuel 16, we’re going to start excavating David’s life and just take layer after layer back because:

Last Sunday night we learned from David’s own mouth:

• WHEN I AM DEPRESSED Psalm 142 DAVID DECLARES GOD IS LISTENING… so the best cure was to just call out to God. We learned that 7 different ways he calls out to God. This morning David says:

• WHEN I AM YOUNG I am going to thirst after God and by that in these chapters we’re looking at this morning– I Samuel 16-17 DAVID LEARNS TO STAND ALONE FOR GOD!

Tonight we will see:



We’re really going to have fun tracking through in fact David gives 22 little evidences of Gods watching him that we’ll see.
But if we went back to the Valley of Elah in I Samuel 16-17 and saw David the shepherd boy facing Goliath. Like everyone else that day, we would be asking, who is that boy? Where did he come from? How come he is acting like that and nobody else is? Well if we did a little home work we would find out that David’s pedigree speaks of God’s grace. His Special Family Line was through several key Old Testament personalities (Ruth 4) and most of them were not positive.

  • He was a descendent of a very notorious harlot, Rahab.
  • He was a descendent of a Cursed Foreign nation, one of his forebearers was a Moabite– Ruth.
  • He was a descendent of an immoral woman, a woman who seduced her own father-in-law and had a child by him through incest– Tamar.
  • Well with relatives like Rahab, Ruth and Tamar each of these got included as portraits of God’s grace! Because all of them were failures that God turned into a picture of His grace.

David’s Family Life again shows God’s grace. He was not oldest, strongest or most likely to succeed. He was overlooked and even by our standards abused by his family. But it matters not if God has His hand upon you! It doesn’t matter what you’ve gone through—what neglect, what ignominious problem you’ve had or abuse—God will use you for His glory. Let’s see that starting in 1 Samuel 16:7: But the LORD said to Samuel, “Do not look at his appearance or at his physical stature, because I have refused him. –this is talking about the children of Jesse—he had 8 sons and he’s walking them through– For* the LORD does not see as man sees; for man looks at the outward appearance, but the LORD looks at the heart.” And so as you see tracking through verses 8, 9 and 10 all the boys walk through but then look at verse 11—that’s our verse for the first point.

DAVID’S LIFE WAS ON GOD’S MIND. GOD USES OUR CIRCUMSTANCES! He is the youngest, he is neglected, he is unwanted, and he is left out. 1 Samuel 16:11 And Samuel said to Jesse, “Are all the young men here?” In other words- do you have any more boys? Then he said, “There remains yet the youngest, and there he is, keeping the sheep.” And Samuel said to Jesse, “Send and bring him. For we will not sit down till he comes here.” What I see here—it’s amazing that God chose the youngest—Now in the Jewish and the Patriarchal and the ancient Middle Eastern world it was the first born that got everything. They got the inheritance, the rights, the names, the power, they got everything but God doesn’t work that way. If you remember Cain and Abel— probably Cain was the older of the twins— God picked the second, Abel not the first Cain. In Ishmael and Isaac God didn’t pick the first born of Abraham- Ishmael, he picked the second born, Isaac and made him the son of promise. In Jacob and Esau—Esau was firstborn but he wasn’t God’s choice- Jacob was. In Jacob’s sons- he had 12 sons but who did God pick? The 11th one—to be the great son of promise—Joseph through whom He did so many marvelous things. Again here, David, the youngest, God says I’ve got My eye on you, I’m going to use you. Look at verse 12:

DAVID’S LIFE WAS DISCIPLINED. GOD USES THE DILIGENT. He is handsome and hard working. 1 Samuel 16:12a So he sent and brought him in. (From where? Did you know if this was couched in 1998 David wouldn’t have been out with the sheep—he would have forgotten about them—he would have been watching TV or playing his video games. You know nowadays for someone to be told to do something and for them to finish the job is such a rare thing. But They knew he would be right where he was supposed to be, watching the flocks!) He was disciplined, he had cultivated doing the most monotonous, the most boring thing there is. Can you imagine how boring it is to just stand out there all day long and be scanning the horizon for predators coming after your sheep and them to be going and getting those dumb things that would wander off and bring them back— and the same ones would wander off and the same ones he’d bring back. But David was totally disciplined in what God had given him through his parents to do. His life was disciplined. God uses people who are diligent to discipline their lives. Look at the last part of verse 12—because-

DAVID’S LIFE WAS AVAILABLE FOR GOD TO USE. I like this– when GOD PICKS HIS SERVANTS. He is chosen of God. 1 Samuel 16:12b So he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, with bright eyes, and good-looking. And the Lord said, “Arise, anoint him; for this is the one!” Now I’ve always liked that– this is the one! Why? What did he do? Well turn back to Psalm 132 and I want you to underline a couple of these points in your Bible because when you pour over this Psalm it starts coming out— the elements that God saw in his life. What did David do during those monotonous, endless hours with the dumb, fearful and easily wandering sheep? Did he lament the fact that he had to do this? Did he say- I’m the youngest and how come I’m stuck with the sheep? No—he turned it into the greatest training program for him after the heart of God. What he does is— look at verse 3–

1. Note in v. 3-4 he sought God ahead of personal comforts; If you know anything about sheep—when you raise them- pretty soon you start smelling like them. So I’m sure the first thing you would want to do when the shift is over is run in and take a shower and get ready you know and go out and have fun with his friends. But look what he says in verse 3: 3 “Surely I will not go into the chamber of my house, -to take a shower- Or go up to the comfort of my bed; because I’m so tired- I’ve worked all day- 4 I will not give sleep to my eyes –because I deserve it- Or slumber to my eyelids, because you know I need to rest my body- 5 Until I find a place for the LORD, David sought God ahead of personal comforts. David sought God first.

2. v. 5 He made time for the Lord; 5 Until I find a place for the LORD, A dwelling place for the Mighty One of Jacob.” He said I’m going to carve my schedule around my time with God— and that means if I have to miss my shower or miss some sleep, I’m going to have time for God. Do you see why God could use him? He’d made his life available for God to use and he was one who made time for God.

3. v. 6 When did this happen? Behold, we heard of it in Ephrathah; We found it in the fields of *the woods. this was as a shepherd boy; He thought this through when he was out there in those monotonous hours and what God did was—it says in 2 Chron. 16:9 For the eyes of the LORD run to and fro throughout the whole earth, to shew himself strong in the behalf of [them] whose heart [is] perfect toward him. And one day as God was looking around for someone whose heart was toward Him he went OH— there’s one right down there on the hillside with those sheep and there was a little shepherd boy and he was saying God, I’m going to make time for You in my life before anything else—before my own pleasures, pursuits and comforts—I’m making time for You and God heard that. He said I’m available to You, God.

4. v. 7 he longed for God; Let us go into His tabernacle; He didn’t want to go into town to have fun with the boys- he was longing for God—He said- Let us worship at His footstool. I want to bow before You, you are so great. Amazing—his young passions.

5. v. 9a he was pondering the priority of personal purity; Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness—He saw that those ministering at the Tabernacle when his parents would take him up for the annual feast—the 3 time a year trips to worship God and as he would go up he would look at the priests and he’d see them in the special clothing that they wore and he said Let Your priests be clothed with righteousness—and what he’s saying is I am pondering the need for personal purity—he was thinking about this as a young man and: And let Your saints shout for joy.

6. v. 9b he was strengthened by righteous living because the righteous are bold as a lion, they have quietness and assurance from God and their hearts overflow with joy! That’s one of the real problems in the Church across the country and around the world— that many of the righteous are not bold and when you see their faces they don’t have the glow of confidence and assurance and quietness. Why? Because of secret sins. The commentators— you know all these people are commenting on the election and everything else and basically what they’ve said is that the reason that the American public let our president off is with all of his moral problems is— it was an expression of the fact that they are so ashamed of their personal secret sins that if they leave the President alone maybe everyone will leave them alone for their own personal wickedness. So basically David is saying that there’s so many people that are covering up their sin that they don’t have Your joy but this saint is going to be clothed with righteousness and shouting for joy because of the confidence that God’s righteousness gives. Well back to 1 Sam. 16 and let’s finish up these elements of David’s life. First of all David was on God’s mind, God picked him. Secondly he was disciplined, he was faithful even in the least as Jesus said and if you’re faithful in what’s least you’ll be faithful in what’s much and God won’t entrust any more to you than the little bit that He gives us until we’re faithful in that. So he was disciplined—we saw that and he was available but now look at 16:13–

DAVID’S LIFE WAS EMPOWERED BY THE LORD. GOD EMPOWERS HIS SERVANTS. The Spirit of God anoints him. 1 Samuel 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel arose and went to Ramah. What is that? That is the picture of the anointing for ministry that God gave and this is the first of 3 anointings David had—the first one was with his family; later with Judah and finally with the whole nation. David had the anointing, the empowering of God for service.

DAVID’S LIFE WAS AN EXAMPLE OF GODLINESS TO OTHERS. Remember, others watch our life and what has happened in the intervening verses is Saul has had this evil spirit troubling him from God—God allowed this evil spirit to attack Saul and so he needed someone to play. Saul put out an “all points bulletin” to find that musician– 1 Samuel 16:18 Then one of the servants answered and said, “Look, I have seen a son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, who is skillful in playing -he has musical ability-, a mighty man of valor – he’s very brave, a man of war –he’d fit in around here, prudent in speech –in other words he would know how to behave in front of the king and he wouldn’t act foolish, and a handsome person –he knows how to take care of him self; and the Lord is with him.” Now I like that—all of us—people can notice if we’re good, if we’re talented, if we talk well, if we dress well—but how many people that live around us say THE LORD IS WITH HIM? You see David’s life was an example of Godliness—people could see it and the way he treated his parents, his brothers— and the way he took care of his sheep and the way he practiced his harp and the way he sang to God and the way he behaved himself in public and in private—all of that was a testimony to others that the Lord was with him. That’s what God is looking for as we seek Him.

DAVID’S LIFE DISPLAYED TRUE HUMILITY. 1 Samuel 16:19 Therefore Saul sent messengers to Jesse, and said, “Send me your son David,-what does that say? who is with the sheep.” Now wait a minute— verse 13– Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him –as the King of Israel—I would imagine that David would never have washed that spot again and put up a big sign over his room: “Home of the future king of Israel” — and would probably have had little cards saying I’m the future king and make sure you vote for me—I’m your king, I’m your man. Can you imagine what this teenager would have done? Look at what he does—it says he was back with the sheep. You see if you have learned to be faithful with the little things God can give you the big things. And God knew that becoming king wouldn’t change David. Some people when they become famous or great; they’re different people. They forget where they came from; they get proud. David had true humility.

DAVID’S LIFE MINISTERED TO OTHERS. It produces comfort in others- and that’s what happens when God uses us. 1 Samuel 16:23 And so it was, whenever the spirit from God was upon Saul, that David would take a harp and play it with his hand. Then Saul would become refreshed and well, and the distressing spirit would depart from him. See David’s life was a channel of blessing. Where he worked, where he served.

DAVID WANTED TO HONOR GOD WITH HIS LIFE. This is the great Goliath story but the key part of David and Goliath is not little boy— big bad guy and armies. The key of this is David is the only one that saw the problem. He had a Divine perspective– Let me show you what I mean: 1 Samuel 17:25-26 So the men of Israel said, “Have you seen this man who has come up? Surely he has come up to defy Israel; and it shall be that the man who kills him the king will enrich with great riches, will give him his daughter, and give his father’s house exemption from taxes in Israel.”26 Then David spoke to the men who stood by him, saying, “What shall be done for the man who kills this Philistine –and listen to what David adds– and takes away the reproach from Israel? For who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy the armies of the living God?” You see David had seen that this is more than these nasty scoundrels that are always attacking the poor, defenseless Israelis and running off with their crops—he saw beyond all that. He saw this was a conflict on the cosmic level. This was an attack on God and David was the only person in all of Israel that saw what was really going on. It was not that they guy was 10 feet tall and it wasn’t how much his armor weighed and it wasn’t how long his spear was or how many soldiers there were. It was that God in Heaven was looking down for one person who would be concerned that God’s name was being dishonored and David didn’t even need a slingshot. I mean he could have killed him with a straw and a pea in it- and just blew it at him. It didn’t matter what—it was that God wanted someone to stand up for Him. Now what I think is neat— look at verse 40: 40 Then he took his staff in his hand; and he chose for himself five smooth stones from the brook, –have you ever been in Sunday School where they say—well that’s because he might have to reload and take more than one shot—but actually the text in 2 Sam. 21 says that Goliath had relatives—we don’t know if they were uncles or brothers or sons—but Goliath had 4 giant relatives and so David said—4 relatives and Goliath—I’m going to do them all in—I’m going to get rid of them all—an he had 5 stones. He was ready to take on the whole family and he was concerned for God’s honor and he wanted God to be honored with his life— and put them in a shepherd’s bag, in a pouch which he had, and his sling was in his hand. And he drew near to the Philistine.

DAVID WANTED TO HONOR GOD WITH HIS WORK. David was responsible. Nothing entrusted to him was too small to maintain. (What has God entrusted to you? A smaller brother or sister? A room, a bike, a job? What are you doing with it? Jesus said 1 Samuel 17:36 “Your servant has killed both lion and bear; and this uncircumcised Philistine will be like one of them, seeing he has defied the armies of the living God.” What is he talking about? Remember when he had his dad’s flock? One day he was looking up and a lion came down. David probably had 200 or 300 sheep and the lion picked out the straggliest, mangiest, weakest one out there on the edge and grabbed it and ran off with it. What did David do? Well he could have said- that’s kind of an ugly sheep and that looks pretty dangerous—we can do without one—and just let the lion have it. I don’t want to cause trouble. Right? NO—he said if I’ve been entrusted with the sheep—even the least of the sheep is important to me and he chased the lion and kills it and gets the sheep back. I wrote this down: What has God entrusted to you? Has he entrusted to you a room or a smaller brother or sister or a bike or a responsibility or a job? Or maybe a responsibility to do this in school or maybe a new job doing that and I think about the little things we’re entrusted to do in life and if we start saying oh that’s not important—that’s alright, I’ll let that one go— You know what God says? I’m not going to give you any more. And David wanted to honor God with his work and if God had given him the care of those sheep through his parents—he treated them like they were the most important thing in the world and that’s why God gave him the whole nation because he took care of one when no one was looking and was responsible.

DAVID WANTED TO HONOR GOD WITH HIS ATTITUDE. I like this-David is HUMBLE 1 Samuel 17:15 But David occasionally went and returned from Saul to feed his father’s sheep at Bethlehem. Here he is—he’s inducted into the inner circle of the king and he’s playing his harp for him and he’s eating at the kings table and he’s by all these warriors and he’s where every boy would always want to be but as soon as the King was off and didn’t need him—what did David do? He went back and took care of the sheep. He didn’t think he was Mr. Big Stuff. He didn’t thing he was beyond all that. You know some people who get their first honor in life and they’re above everything. They can’t do anything any more- they’re bigger than that. David never got big and that’s why God loved him so much.

DAVID WANTED TO HONOR GOD WITH HIS HABITS. David is DISCIPLINED. 1 Samuel 17:20 so David rose early in the morning, do you know what I call that? Mind over mattress. He developed it well. He developed a habit of not being a sluggard and he cultivated that. He left the sheep with a keeper, -he didn’t abandon his job- and took the things and went as Jesse had commanded him. There are 3 big things here. #1 he was disciplined in his life- he got up. #2 he entrusted the care of his responsibility to others when he wouldn’t be there and #3 he obeyed his parents. Do you know what I see there? David wanted to honor God with his habits. Do you really think that was the first time he did that? No. Be careful what habits you grow! And he came to the camp as the army was going out to the fight and shouting for the battle. William James, in his classic Principles of Psychology, put it this way: Could the young but realize how soon they will become mere walking bundles of habits, they would give more heed to their conduct while in the plastic state. We are spinning our own fates, good or evil, and never to be undone. Every smallest stroke or virtue or vice leaves its ever so little scar. The drunken Rip Van Winkle, in Jefferson’s play, excuses himself for every fresh dereliction by saying, “I won’t count this time! ” Well! He may not count it, but it is being counted nonetheless. Down among his nerve cells and fibers the molecules are counting it, registering and storing it up to be used against him when the next temptation comes. Nothing we ever do is, in strict scientific literalness, wiped out. Of course, this has its good side as well as its bad one.2 David cultivated good habits. What are the habits of your life? What do you do when you aren’t thinking? When you just act the way you want to act? What comes natural? What habits have you cultivated? David cultivated habits that honored God.

DAVID WANTED TO MAGNIFY GOD’S HAND IN HIS LIFE. We don’t get to hear his voice very often—look at what he says in 1 Samuel 17:36-37- he gives an interview and I can just see most people coming up and saying yeah that’s me, David, boy, I’m anointed— look, I still have the oil right here, just check me out. No—he says: “Your servant has killed both lion and bear; and this uncircumcised Philistine will be like one of them, –he was like an animal- why? Seeing he has defied the armies of the living God.” 37 Moreover David said, “The Lord, who delivered me –it’s not my skill, it’s not because I practiced this slingshot so long—God used the disciplines and He used me to be delivered– from the paw of the lion and from the paw of the bear, He will deliver me from the hand of this Philistine.” And Saul said to David, “Go, and the Lord be with you!” David wanted to magnify God and when he got to talk he pointed to the Lord.

DAVID WANTED TO GLORIFY GOD WITH HIS LIFE. 1 Samuel 17:4546 Then David said to the Philistine, “You come to me with a sword, with a spear, and with a javelin. But I come to you in the name of the Lord of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied. That really bothered David- he said it about 5 times in this passage. 46 “This day the Lord will deliver you into my hand, and I will strike you and take your head from you. And this day I will give the carcasses of the camp of the Philistines to the birds of the air and the wild beasts of the earth, that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel. No body is paying attention to Him.

DAVID WANTED TO DEDICATE HIS LIFE WHOLLY TO THE LORD. Compare 1 Samuel 17:54 And David took the head of the Philistine and brought it to Jerusalem, -that was just to let them know that the enemy was gone- but look at this– but he put his armor in his tent. Why is that? If you track it down and look in 1 Samuel 21:9 you will find out that that armor and especially the massive sword showed up in the Tabernacle– it was in the Tent of Meeting in Shiloh. Why? David gave his trophies to God all the way through life. He measured life from God’s perspective. He said if I have this big victory and this sword- what’s the best thing I can do with it? Make a shrine and put it up in my room and brag about it? No—he said I’m going to give it to God. So the priest said, “The sword of Goliath the Philistine, whom you killed in the Valley of Elah, there it is, wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod. If you will take that, take it. For there is no other except that one here.” And David said, “There is none like it; give it to me.”
So, are you seeking God while you are young. You say how do I start? Heres a quick game plan, like David:

  • realize your life is on God’s mind. He wants to use you.
  • realize your life needs discipline.
  • realize your life needs to be available for God to use.
  • realize your life needs to be empowered by His Spirit.
  • realize your life needs to be an example of godliness
  • realize your life needs to display true humility.
  • realize your life needs to minister to others.

You should be like David and want to honor God with your life.

  • Like David want to honor God with YOUR work.
  • Like David want to honor God with YOUR attitude.
  • Like David want to honor God with YOUR habits.
  • Like David every time you get to speak, tell of God’s hand in YOUR life.
  • Like David want to glorify god with YOUR life.

And then when you win trophies along the way, like David DEDICATE all you are and have wholly to the Lord. That’s how you thirst after God. Let’s ponder these truths give ourselves back to the Lord.

1 The materials used in this study include: from 1990 [900121pm; 900128pm;900 204pm; 900218pm, 900225pm, 900318pm]; from 1992 [920409we, 920506we]; from 1994 [9406011we]; from 1995 [950119os; 950121me]; from 1987 [1987david]

2 William James, Principles of Psychology (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 1952), p. 83.